Faraday Phenomenon

— the rotation of the polarization plane of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves with its spreading in the material along magnetic field lines. The angle of rotation $\varphi$ of the polarization plane even $\varphi=V l H$, where $H$ — value of the tension magnetic field, $l$ — length of the path that passes electromagnetic wave field, $V$ — constant of Verde’s, which depends on the nature of the substance, wavelength and temperature. Opened in $1846$ Michael Faraday.

Farad (F)

— unit of electrical capacity in SI. $1 F$ is the electric capacity of a capacitor between the plates at which there is a charge of $1 C$ Electric voltage $1 V$. Named after the English. physicist M. Faraday $(1791 - 1867)$.

Phase Space

— multidimensional space of generalized coordinates and generalized impulse of system. System status at some time given the appropriate point in Ph. s., called phase point and change of state described the phase trajectory. Subspace generalized coordinates called configuration space. Ph.s. allows us to formulate the laws of the system changes in geometric language.

Phase Transition, Phase Transformation

— transition substance from one phase to another. Ph. t. first kind is accompanied by abrupt change in density and internal energy of the system and going with absorption or release a certain number of heat (heat of Ph. t.) (Eg., boiling, melting, the transition from one crystal modification to another). Ph. t. second kind occurs without changing the density and internal energy of the system (heat of Ph.t.

Phase Velocity

— the velocity of the surface in the space of constant phase monochromatic wave. Ph. v. waves among different for waves of different frequencies (see. Dispersion of waves).

Phase Equilibrium

— equilibrium thermodynamic system consisting of two or more phases. In a closed system with Ph.e. in all phases of the system should be the same values of pressure, temperature and chemical potential of each component of the system.